Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe. It includes 16 constituent states and covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi) with a largely temperate seasonal climate. Its capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany is the most populous member state in the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular migration destination in the world. Germany has been continuously the home of influential artists, philosophers, musicians, sportsmen, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.From its roots, culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"), because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought and culture.Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and other practices.Only 3 October has been a national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day).
German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Dieterich Buxtehude composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel; these men were influential composers of the Baroque period.Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.German popular music of the 20th and 21st century includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle (Nena, Trio), pop (Boney M., Alphaville, Modern Talking), Ostrock (City, Keimzeit), heavy metal/rock (Rammstein, Scorpions), punk (Nina Hagen, Die Ärzte, Die Toten Hosen), pop rock (Beatsteaks, Tokio Hotel), indie (Tocotronic) and schlager pop (Ute Lemper, Katja Ebstein, Hildegard Knef, Helene Fischer). German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.German painters have influenced western art.Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Peter Paul Rubens and Johann Baptist Zimmermann of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernst of Surrealism.Brandenburg Gate, Berlin Wall, Cologne Cathedral, Europa Park, Museum Island, Lorelei, Rugen Cliffs, Romantic Rhine, Frauenkirche, Lindau, Oktoberfest, Holstentor, Heidelberg Old City, Neuschwanstein, Black Forest, Rhine Falls are some important interesting places in Germany.